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stackify.com

How to Fix JavaScript Errors

My computer programming teacher had always told me that 10% of our time is spent developing 90% of our application, and the other 90% of our time finishing the last 10% of our project. Even with a good project plan and a concept that makes logical sense, most of our time will be consumed with fixing errors. Moreover, with JavaScript, our application can run without obvious errors preventing it from being run, so we have to employ several techniques to make sure everything is running smoothly.

Understanding both the syntax and how JavaScript works will eliminate most of our JavaScript errors in our web applications. Furthermore, there are many online services that can help us catch them all.

Starting from basic to advanced, here are some methods to fix JavaScript errors in our applications.

Know the Different Types of JavaScript Errors

We need to know what type of error we’re receiving to know what we need to do to fix it. Namely, with JavaScript, most of our errors fit into two categories: syntax errors and runtime errors.

syntax error is a problem with the grammar in our code. Syntax errors mostly come in the form of misspelled keywords, missing or open brackets, or missing parentheses or punctuation. Certainly, through time, our syntax errors will become fewer as we become experts in JavaScript, but simple mistakes do happen a lot.

runtime error prevents our application from actually running. Sometimes there’s a problem with our logic flow and our program breaks, like calling strings that aren’t there. Other times, our program can run but the result isn’t as we planned it. Consequently, runtime errors can be a bit trickier to fix than syntax errors.

Since we know the two main types of JavaScript errors, we can swiftly move on to fixing them.

When in Doubt, Reload

Sometimes the simplest thing we can do is reload the web page. It’s the classic IT crowd solution to everything—turn it on and off again. Maybe we already solved this error and the file hasn’t uploaded yet or some data was missing. It may also help to delete your browser history and cache in case your browser is saving a bad version of your website or application.

Google Chrome sometimes displays an “Aw, Snap!†error when it has difficulty running our web page. This may or may not be caused by a JavaScript error—either way, don’t panic and just reload the page.

Then we can move on to checking for JavaScript errors in further detail.

Check If JavaScript Is Turned On

We must keep in mind that JavaScript is set differently for each browser. Furthermore, JavaScript reacts differently depending on each browser and how each user’s settings are set for their browsers. For example, JavaScript has some security holes, and hackers may put malicious code in some JavaScript; thus, for safety reasons, JavaScript is often turned off in some browsers. So we must check our browser settings to see if JavaScript is turned on.

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is one vulnerability in JavaScript that allows hackers to inject malicious code into legitimate websites. For example, Twitter was injected by malware called the “StalkDaily†worm. That doesn’t sound good, does it? Hence, turning JavaScript off avoids security issues but will obviously cause errors when you’re running an application with JavaScript.

If you’re not sure, you can quickly check here to see if your browser’s JavaScript is turned on.

Similarly, we can check whether we have a pop-up blocker enabled that’s preventing parts of our JavaScript from working, such as our use of alert boxes. We can enable or disable pop-up boxes from either our browser settings or an add-on that we’re using.

Now that we’ve covered the basics, let’s move on to some things that are more advanced.

Use In-Browser Developer Tools

By far the most useful tools at our disposal for fixing JavaScript errors are the in-browser developer tools. Previously, when I was a young developer, I would use Firefox separately to browse the web projects that I was developing. Now I use whichever browser suits my needs at the moment—Firefox, Chrome, Safari, Microsoft Edge, Opera, or Brave.

In 2019, Firefox and Chrome were the two most popular browsers with developers.

To get started, just open up your favorite browser with developer tools, then find the developer tools in the browser menu. Begin looking at the various elements or console tools to find some errors to fix.

Some developer tools also let us check if our web design is responsive to mobile devices.

Developer Tools in Brave

Developer tools are useful for checking JavaScript errors as well as:

  • Currently loaded HTML and CSS
  • DOM explorer
  • Layout
  • Animations
  • Memory use
  • Console logs
  • Debugger
  • File list
  • Source code

And many more, depending on the in-browser developer tool.

Check Cross-Browser Compatibility

As I said before, each browser responds to JavaScript differently. This means that our application may not be compatible with all browsers, and we’ll have errors to fix. Unfortunately, it’s not reasonable to prompt a pop-up box to encourage users to download. Because of this, we have to double- and triple-check that our websites are compatible with all internet browsers.

JavaScript cross-browser compatibility issues usually revolve around modern core JavaScript features and some libraries that are either from third parties or native to JavaScript.

So, either download each of the major browsers and individually test for browser compatibility, or try out a range of different software that can test cross-browser compatibility.

Browsera is one tool that not only tests for cross-browser compatibility but also detects JavaScript errors as well.

MacBook Pro with images of computer language codes

Use Console.log() to Display Anticipated Results

Console.log() is a function that allows us to display messages in our browser console. Moreover, we also print strings and other variables so we can see their values. This is indeed useful for us to check if our functions are displaying the desired results.

These types of errors may not stop our applications from running, but at the same time, they’re functional errors for us to fix.

For example, we can create an event listener that checks if a particular button is clicked on. When the onClick event is triggered, a message confirming that our function works appears in our console.

Ideally, we should use these tests only during the development stage of our web project, and we should remove these console.log() events from our final product.

 document.addEventListener('buttonClick', function (event) {

 console.log("Button Clicked!");

 }, false); 

Likewise, we can use JavaScript alert boxes with a similar method.

 document.addEventListener('buttonClick', function (event) {

 alert("I am in a box with a " str + "!");

 }, false); 

In the End

Our basic knowledge of how JavaScript works and some simple coding practices should be enough to fix our JavaScript errors. In addition to these skills, we have hundreds of online services to choose from that can help us catch those trickier errors.

Hopefully, through time, less than 90% of our time will be used up fixing JavaScript if we use the above methods.

Check out Retrace real user monitoring. It can monitor everything about your JavaScript applications to catch errors and accelerate web performance, including the following:

  • Integrate errors and logs
  • Consolidate alerts and notifications
  • Customize dashboards
  • Monitor JavaScript files and functions
  • Accelerate page load times
  • Improve user experience
  • Monitor front-end and back-end code together
  • Accurately locate and resolve bottlenecks faster
Categories
kinsta.com

DDoS Attacks Explained: Causes, Effects, and How to Protect Your Site

A DDoS attack is surprisingly easy to carry out and affects millions of websites worldwide every year, with the number of attacks rising.

Suffering DDoS attacks may seem like an inevitable side effect of being online; the more successful your site, the more likely it might seem that you’ll be the target of an attack at some point. But you can reduce the chances of a DDoS attack affecting your site.

You might be wondering: What is a DDoS attack? And how can I protect my site from them?

In this post, we’ll explain what DDoS attacks are, explore what might make your site vulnerable, and outline the ways you can reduce their probability and impact.

What is a DDoS Attack?

Let’s start by examining exactly what a DDoS attack is and, importantly, what it is not.

DDoS stands for distributed denial of service but is often referred to as a simple denial of service. A DDoS attack consists of a website being flooded by requests during a short period of time, with the aim of overwhelming the site and causing it to crash. The ‘distributed’ element means that these attacks are coming from multiple locations at the same time, as compared to a DoS which comes from just one location.

If your site suffers a DDoS attack, you will receive thousands of requests from multiple sources over a period of minutes or sometimes hours. These requests aren’t the result of a website suddenly getting a spike in traffic: they are automated and will come from a limited number of sources, depending on the scale of the attack.

In the screenshot below, you can see the sudden spike in requests received by a site when it’s subject to a DDoS attack.

DDoS attack traffic

DDoS attack traffic

A DDoS attack isn’t the same thing as hacking, although the two can be linked; the perpetrators aren’t attempting to access your website’s files or admin, but instead, they cause it to crash or become vulnerable due to the volume of requests. In some cases, this will be followed by attempts to hack the site when it’s vulnerable, but in the majority of cases, the aim is simply to make the site stop working.

It may sound as if there isn’t any way to avoid a DDoS attack: after all, if someone decides to flood your site with requests, there isn’t much you can do to stop them.

But although you can’t do much to stop someone attempting to damage your site with a DDoS attack, there are steps you can take to ensure that if you are subject to an attack, your site won’t cease working and it won’t be vulnerable to hacking.

We’ll cover those steps later in this post, but first, let’s examine why someone might want to mount a DDoS attack on your site.

Why Would Someone DDoS your site?

So why would someone mount a DDoS attack on your WordPress site? What could they have to gain from it?

There are many reasons why an attacker might want to put your site out of action via a DDoS attack. These include attacks by competitors and attacks because of your content.

DDoS Attacks by Competitors

In an ideal world, your competitors would attempt to outperform you online by improving their content, SEO and conversion rate, which is the legitimate way to use your website to gain competitive advantage.

But in some cases, competitors might take more extreme measures. A competitor might hire someone to mount a DDoS attack on your site in the knowledge that this won’t only impact your website, it’ll also impact your business.

In the time it takes you to get your site working again, they will be taking business from you, especially if they are running ads using your business name as a keyword. If your site isn’t up and running again quickly, you’ll lose search ranking and may find that your competitors now rank above you on Google.

Of course, it’s very difficult to prove who carried out any DDoS attack. The attack won’t come from your competitor’s IP address! Unless you have very deep pockets, attempting to take legal action against a competitor you suspect of doing this is unlikely to be successful.

Far better to protect yourself from the effects of an attack in the first place. And don’t be tempted to mount another DDoS attack against your competitor in response. This is illegal and it’s far better to reassure yourself that a competitor desperate enough to use measures such as these probably won’t have the longevity or reputation that your business does.

DDoS Attacks on Your Content

Some sites are subject to DDoS attacks because of the nature of their content.

For example, a whistleblowing site might be subject to an attack. A site dealing with a controversial issue (such as access to abortion or anti-racism) might suffer attacks from people who disagree with its message and want to put it out of action. Or your content might be commercial but still sensitive and there are people who don’t want it available online.

If your site is successfully attacked, it will put your content out of circulation, which could cause problems for your users if they need access to information or guidance.

You’ll also be spending time resolving the issue, losing any revenue you might be making from the site (either in sales or donations if you are a nonprofit), and your rankings can drop if your site is returning a 502 error for hours or days.

Politically Motivated DDoS Attacks

Politically motivated DDoS attacks are becoming more common as cyber threats are increasingly used to disrupt the political process.

If your website is for a political party, candidate or organization, or advances a specific political cause, then it may be vulnerable to attack from people who disagree with your politics.

This won’t unnecessarily come from your political opponents. It is more likely to come from external sources that seek to disrupt political debate, block certain types of content and use chaos to confuse and disenfranchise people.

The attack could be an attempt to make it impossible for people to access your content (see above), or it could be a more personal attack on the individual candidate or organization behind the site.

This is different from a site becoming overloaded because of spikes in visits due to the news cycle. I once worked on the website of a political party which became overwhelmed when the party’s manifesto was launched for a general election. That was the first UK election in which e-campaigning was significant and we just weren’t prepared for the volume of traffic.

Instead, a DDoS attack will be much sharper and more abrupt, seeing a very sudden spike in requests for sometimes a matter of minutes. This will look very different from a natural spike in traffic, which although it can be sudden will normally take the form of a curve instead of a cliff.

If you are running a campaign (which might have made you more vulnerable because of the extra publicity), then it will be particularly important to ensure your site remains operational and not to waste time dealing with the attack when you could be focusing on campaigning activity. That’s why it’s crucial to take the steps below to protect your site from a politically motivated DDoS attack.

The Effects of a DDoS Attack

A DDoS attack might have a variety of effects, depending on the nature of the attack and how prepared you are for it.

1. Website Downtime

The most immediate and obvious effect is that your website is overwhelmed and becomes unavailable.

This means any business you gain via your website won’t be available to you until you get the site working again. It also impacts on your reputation as a website owner. And if you don’t fix the site quickly, it can affect your SEO as if Google crawls your site and finds it out of action, you will lose rank.

If your site is unavailable because of being overloaded, it will return a 502 bad gateway error, which will negatively impact your search rankings if you allow it to stay that way for too long.

I’ve also seen attacks where the site hasn’t been available for a number of days (because the owner didn’t know how to fix it and hadn’t kept a backup, more of which shortly), and when the site did go back online, all of the internal links in that site’s Google listing had been lost.

2. Server and Hosting Issues

If your site is subject to regular attacks that you don’t take steps to mitigate, this could lead to issues with your hosting provider.

A good hosting provider will give you tools to secure your site against DDoS attacks but if you don’t have this and you’re on shared hosting, the attacks may impact other sites on the same server.

Info

Kinsta implements hardware firewalls powered by Google Cloud Platform, active and passive security, and other advanced features to prevent access to your customers’ data. Check out more here.

3. Website Vulnerability

A DDoS attack could render your site more vulnerable to hacking as all of your systems are focused on getting the site back online, and security systems may have been put out of action by the attack.

Hackers might then find it easier to make their way onto your site via a back door once the DDoS attack has succeeded in paralyzing your site.

Follow-up attacks like this won’t always come from the same source as the requests that formed the DDoS attack: a clever hacker will know how to hide their tracks and use multiple IP addresses to attack your site, as well as how to hide their real location.

So if you are the victim of a DDoS attack, one of your first priorities should be ensuring your WordPress site is secure. This is arguably more important than getting your public-facing site up and running again, as another attack will only take you back to square one (or worse).

4. Lost Time and Money

Repairing a website that has been subject to a DDoS attack takes time. It can also take money.

If you don’t know what’s happened to your site and haven’t prepared for the possibility of an attack, you could end up having to rebuild your site from scratch (I’ve seen sites where this has happened). If you didn’t take a backup of your site, what are you going to restore it from? And if you don’t fix it quickly, the attack could have a long-term impact on your site’s SEO and business performance.

While the site is down, you could be losing money in revenue, especially if your site is an ecommerce store. And you may have to pay money to hire a security expert or web enveloper to rebuild your site and make sure it’s protected from future attacks.

All of this emphasizes how important it is to protect your site from DDoS attacks. I had one client who suffered frequent attempted attacks because of the nature of their business; because we set up security measures, these never impacted on the site. If you’re prepared, then a DDoS attack shouldn’t affect your site either.

What Can Make Your Website Vulnerable to DDoS Attacks?

Some sites are more vulnerable than others to DDoS attacks. These will either make you more vulnerable to the attack in the first place or to its after-effects.

Cheap Hosting

The first culprit when it comes to vulnerability to DDoS attacks, as with all kinds of cyberattacks, is cheap hosting.

Cheap hosting has two main downsides: lack of support and volume of clients.

To make it possible to offer the hosting so cheaply, the hosting provider will have a large number of clients all using the same server, meaning if one of the other sites on that server is subject to an attack, it could affect you.

Cheap hosting providers won’t provide security precautions against DDoS attacks, they won’t warn you when an attack takes place, and they won’t help you to repair your site when it stops working. They won’t take regular backups of your site and even if they do, they’re unlikely to help you restore your site: you’ll have to work out how to do it yourself.

This isn’t because cheap hosting providers are trying to con you or because they don’t provide the services they promise: it’s simply because to make their hosting cheap, they have to skimp on support. Otherwise, they wouldn’t make a profit.

If your website supports a business or any venture where your reputation and the security of your website is important, then it pays to invest in good quality hosting. The extra cost will be worth it when you avoid having to spend time fixing your site if it is attacked, and will certainly be worth it if it means your site stays online through an attempted DDoS attack and isn’t compromised.

Info

Kinsta offers a security guarantee as well as firewall protection against DDoS attacks.

Lack of Preparation

Failing to prepare for the possibility of a DDoS attack won’t necessarily prevent one happening, but it will mean you don’t suffer so much if you are subject to one.

Firstly, taking security precautions against potential attacks will enhance your site’s chances of staying online despite suffering an attempted attack.

But understanding how to stop a DDoS attack in its tracks will also help. If your site is attacked and does go down if you’ve prepared you will be able to get it up and running again much quicker than if you hadn’t prepared.

Struggling with downtime and WordPress issues? Kinsta is the hosting solution designed with performance and security in mind! Check out our plans

Installing security software or making use of the security alerts offered by your hosting provider means you will be alerted if your site does come under attack, and either you or your hosting provider can take action to protect your site.

Taking regular backups of your site means that you can quickly restore it if it does experience problems.

And keeping your site up to date means that it’s inherently more secure and will be less likely to encounter problems if you do have to rebuild it.

Insecure or Out of Date Code

Keeping your version of WordPress as well as your theme and plugins up to date won’t protect you from a DDoS attack.

But if you are attacked and the subsequent weakness of your site is used by hackers as an opportunity to gain unwanted access, they will be far less likely to succeed if your site is well managed.

Precautions include keeping your site up to date as well as only installing plugins and themes from reputable sources. The WordPress theme and plugin directories are by far the best places to find free themes and plugins, and reputable developers will make them available there. Be careful not to install code that might cause incompatibilities with your hosting and never install nulled themes or plugins.

How to Protect Your Site Against DDoS Attacks

So now for the question you’ve been itching to know the answer to: how do you protect your site against DDoS attacks?

There are a variety of precautions you can take, and which you choose will depend on your setup, your budget, and your preferences.

Let’s take a look at the options.

Protection from Your Hosting Provider

Kinsta hosting has a number of features that will reduce the chances of you being subject to DDoS attacks.

All of the sites hosted at Kinsta are stored behind the Google Cloud Platform (GCP) Firewall. Each site container (where your WordPress site lives) runs on a virtual machine in one of multiple GCP data centers. This is behind a load balancer, which is then secured behind the GCP’s enterprise-leve firewall.

All of this makes it much harder for a DDoS attack to get through.

Another Kinsta feature which can help protect you once a DDoS attack has begun is GeoIP blocking. Kinsta will detect any DDoS attack and alert you to it. You can then use the Geo IP blocking feature to block the geographical area from which the DDoS attack is coming.

This means you can safely block a geographical region where an attack is coming from and IP addresses from that region will no longer be able to send requests to your site.

Alternatively, you can block individual IPs in MyKinsta via the IP Deny page.

Kinsta IP deny

Kinsta’s IP deny feature

Here comes the hard truth, though: however good your hosting provider is, it’s impossible for them to provide total protection against DDoS attacks. What a good hosting provider will do is provide a good firewall, which will reduce the chance of an attack but not get rid of it altogether. They will also have tools you or they can use to stop the DDoS attack once it starts, such as IP blocking.

This is why any hosting provider that claims to give you total protection from DDoS attacks isn’t being entirely honest. They can reduce the probability of an attack and they can limit the impact of it, but they can’t stop DDoS attacks entirely.

Instead, to protect yourself from DDoS attacks more thoroughly you need to use a vast network that can use its database of information about attacks on other sites around the world to anticipate attacks and block IPs from which they re likely to come. Let’s look at a couple of those services.

Cloudflare

Cloudflare is one of the internet’s most popular providers of content delivery networks, and it also offers protection against attacks and hacks. Because of its vast size, it has access to information about where DDoS attacks are coming from and can then block those IP addresses for all the sites on its network.

Cloudflare DDoS

Cloudflare DDoS protection

Cloudflare’s cloud-based network is always on and always learning, meaning it can be identifying potential attacks and stopping unwanted traffic from reaching your site 24/7. It also provides you with a dashboard you can use to monitor and allay DDoS attacks so you can identify what your vulnerabilities might be.

Sucuri

Sucuri is a company best known for its services cleaning up sites after hacks and helping to prevent them from happening again. But it also offers DDoS protection.

Sucuri DDoS protection

Sucuri DDoS protection

Sucuri’s service works because it is so large, with a network of over 400,000 customers meaning it can keep a database of attacks in the same way that Cloudflare can. Those IP addresses can then be blocked on your site.

Sucuri’s network isn’t as big as Cloudflare’s but the company is worth considering if you also want advanced security features and monitoring, which is where their specialty lies. Sucuri will monitor your site for downtime and attacks or hacks and will fix any hacks that take place.

So if you do suffer a DDoS attack and your WordPress site is hacked when it’s vulnerable, being with Sucuri means you can get it up and running again as quickly as possible.

DDoS attacks are spreading like fire but why in the world would anyone attack your site? Well, there are plenty of reasons… (and ways to keep your site protected) 👨â€ðŸš’🛡ï¸Click to Tweet

Summary

DDoS attacks are becoming more common and they have the potential to cause billions of dollars worth of damage.

It’s impossible to completely protect yourself from DDoS attacks as there isn’t much control you have over the traffic coming to your site. But if you use one of the services above, avoid cheap hosting, and prepare yourself for a DDoS attack if one does occur, then you will be much less likely to suffer.

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www.sunflowerhospital.in

Tips on how to cope with Infertility


Infertility is a heartbreaking journey, but you are not alone struggling to begin your family. There are a myriad number of couples waiting to become parents and overcome infertility. With medical advancements, there is hope for everyone to experience parenthood, through assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as IVF treatment.

The path leading towards fertility can be stressful at times, but there are many ways to deal with this stress. Being the best infertility hospital in Ahmedabad, Sunflower Hospital is here to discuss a few tips on how to focus on your body and mind while experiencing this fertility journey.

Pamper Yourself: Take good care of yourself and have time for things that you enjoy doing. Consider engaging with activities that assist you to communicate with more individuals and remind you less about infertility. Regardless of whether it is yoga, meditation or massage, don’t reconsider, get it done for your happiness.

Talk to a specialist: Our expert, an IVF specialist in Ahmedabad, supports numerous couples dealing with infertility. While considering IVF treatment or any other fertility treatments, you need expert advice on every step. Your doctor will encourage you and guide you on the best way to cope with psychological issues that further affects your chances of getting pregnant.

Talk to your partner – Both the partners ought to remain on the same page and support each other during the infertility journey to overcome the struggles together. Let your partner get informed about your emotions, anxiety, and fear. Consider re-establishing your intimate relationship. This way, you will feel healthy and relaxed, which is a reward to augment your fertility possibilities.

Get Informed: Consult the best doctor for IVF treatment in Ahmedabad. An expert doctor will never let you suffer because of ignorance. At Sunflower Women’s Hospital, we educate the intended couples about their fertility choices that best suit their preferences. Our prime objective is to decrease our patient’s pain through expert care and support.

Stick to a strict diet: As you spend a lot of time, money, mind, and peace to get pregnant through IVF treatment, health should not be compromised. Ensure you follow a strict diet to stay healthy and stabilize your hormones. Talk about the do’s and don’ts of food habits while attempting to conceive through IVF cycles.

Visit Sunflower Hospital to know more about infertility treatment options. Being an advanced fertility and IVF center in Gujarat we understand your concerns, your feelings and furthermore have the expertise and solutions to fulfill your dreams. Book your appointment today.